Using force, fraud or coercion to cause someone to engage in a commercial sex act, or to obtain labor against a person’s will. For anyone under the age of 18, they are considered a victim even if there is no fraud, force or coercion. Labor trafficking involves taking a person’s bodily organs from them against their will.

Vulnerabilities are anything that make someone more susceptible to coming under the control of a trafficker. These could include prior sexual abuse, history of family violence, poor self-esteem, unstable family relationships, poverty, homelessness, drug/alcohol addiction, etc. Although some populations are more vulnerable than others, anyone at any time could come under the control of a trafficker. No-one is exempt. Trafficking doesn’t discriminate.


  • Unusually long work hours, or unusual hours, for little or no pay
  • A person is unable to come and go as they please.
  • Unusual sleeping arrangements (several mattresses on the floor)
  • A lot of people in a cramped space, lack of furniture, etc.
  • Lack of ID or someone else is holding their documents
  • Lack of personal possessions
  • Unfamiliarity with the area they are in may suggest they are being moved around a lot
  • Unusual amounts of security that appears to be for the purpose of keeping people in, rather than out.
  • Stunted development
  • Cuts and bruises, looking malnourished or deprived of sleep
  • Tattoos that look more like a branding
  • Inappropriate or provocative dress
  • Someone else speaks for the person
  • Person seems nervous and doesn’t look you in the eye, always looks to spokesperson
  • Significant other is much older than person in question
  • A statement about owing their employer a large sum of money